Kiriku in čarovnica (Kirikou et la sorciere)
slovensko

Bilo je nekoč v majhni afriški vasici ... Glas, prihajajoč iz trebuha nosečnice, je rekel: "Mama, rodi me." Na svet je prišel majhen deček, prerezal svojo popkovino in oznanil: "Jaz sem KIRIKU." Kmalu je odkril, da je njegovo vasico uročila Karaba, strašna čarovnica, obdana s poslušnimi in divjaškimi Fetiši ... Karabin urok je izsušil izvir, vaščani so izginjali in čarovnica je jedla može iz vasi. Bo Kirikouju uspelo prelomiti strašen urok?

Kdo je Kiriku in od kod prihaja?

Kiriku je droban, a samostojen, nesebičen in pogumen deček, ki že pred rojstvom natančno ve, kaj si želi. Njegova mama je ponosna mlada ženska, samostojna in odprte glave, čeprav je večina vaščanov vzvišena nad njo in Kirikujem. Sinovo prerano samostojnost sprejema kot mati, z vso obzirnostjo, a mu stoji ob strani vedno, ko jo potrebuje. Kirikou je odločen, da se bo zoperstavil Karabi, strašljivi čarovnici. Režiser Michel Ocelot pravi, da si ga je zamislil tako drobnega, ker je potem njuno soočenje bolj udarno: Kiriku je droban in nag ob visoki, elegantni in impresivni Karabi, obdani z nakitom. Četudi mu majhna rast omogoča vstop v prostore, kamor drugi ne morejo, sam ni zadovoljen s svojo velikostjo in drugačnostjo od drugih otrok. Rad bi zrasel. Želi rešiti svoje ljudstvo, obenem pa hoče odkriti, zakaj je Karaba zlobna. Ne strinja se z mnenji in dejanji sovaščanov, želi videti globlje in za svoja vprašanja poiskati lastne odgovore. Karaba je močna, zlobna in zelo lepa. Modrec z gore, Kirikujev nežen, odpuščajoč, plemenit in čeden dedek, ki pooseblja umirjeno starost, o njej pravi: "Karaba ne mara otrok, prezira ženske, sovraži moške in vsem želi le trpljenje." Kiriku išče vzrok za Karabino zlohotnost. Izkaže se, da je trpela, ker so ljudje z njo grdo ravnali, in se želi maščevati. Živi samotarsko ob robu vasi v ogromni slamnati koči, na zunaj sivi (smrt in razdejanje) in od znotraj rdeči (peklenski ogenj). Obdana je s Fetiši, neustrašnimi sužnji različnih velikosti in oblik, ki brez ugovora sledijo njenim ukazom. Navdih zanje v celoti izhaja iz afriških kipcev.

Ocelot je v filmu upodobil živali, ki jih najdemo v Afriki: smrdokavre, zorile, veverice, bradavičaste prašiče, kače ... Živali večinoma ne prevzemajo človeških lastnosti, ostajajo živali in navdušijo bolj kot umetne govoreče živali. Režiser v filmu ni želel uporabiti rastlin, saj so jih že velikokrat. Predlagal je naslednje pravilo: risbe rastlin morajo biti natančne reprodukcije resničnih tropskih rastlin, čeprav stilizirane in z značilnostmi egipčanskih risb, podobne tudi risbam slikarja Douanierja Rousseauja. Želel je, da je vsaka rastlina majhna umetnina, tudi tiste, ki so skrite v gozdu. Videli boste, da so v filmu kar dosledno upoštevana ta pravila.

Izjava režiserja

"Ideja filma izhaja iz zahodnoafriške pripovedi, ki sem jo prebral pred nekaj leti. Začetek pripovedi in razplet zgodbe sta v meni nekaj vzbudila, začel sem si zapisovati opombe in v glavi že razvijal celovečerni film. Na začetku zgodbe majhen otrok spregovori, medtem ko je še v maternici, in zahteva svoje rojstvo. Mama z enako trmo dovoli otroku, da se sam rodi. Potem se, v nasprotju z ostalimi vaščani, sooči s čarovnico, namesto, da bi sprejel in se bal avtoritete njenih nadnaravnih sil in vaščane nazadnje osvobodi iz zlobnih ženskih krempljev.

Ko me je producent prosil za scenarij celovečernega filma, se je ideja o Kirikuju, ki se ne boji čarovnice, sama ponujala. Poleg čudovite zgodbe, napolnjene z energijo, sem vedno želel potrtetirati Afriko, mogočno kraljestvo, ki še ni bilo potretirano v celovečernem animiranem filmu (v filmu Levji kralj je prikazano afriško ozadje, na pa Afrika ali Afričani). Zgodba filma je povezana z afriško pripovedjo, s katero sem začel in iz nje razvil prijetno, preprosto zgodbo z vprašanji, ki sem si jih postavljal še kot otrok, in prepričanji, ki sem jih prevzel kot odrasel. Razvil sem nasprotje med majhnim otrokom in mogočno čarovnico: Kiriku je droban in nima oblačil, Karaba je kot kip, nakičena z dragulji, zlobo in močjo. Osrednja tema zgodbe je vprašanje, ki ga vedno znova postavlja Kiriku: "Zakaj je čarovnica zlobna?" Odrasli imajo vnaprej pripravljena vprašanja, če jih sploh imajo. Toda Kirikou bo našel resnico, njegova dejanja niso vnaprej določena in čarovnice ne bo preprosto ubil, kot v izvorni zgodbi. Druga tema izpostavlja, naj se ne bojimo "čarovnic", saj lahko dosežemo, kar si želimo, le, če nismo vraževerni in ne verjamemo v amulete, in vzamemo stvari v svoje roke. Moji junaki so samostojni: Kiriku, njegova mama in dedek ter Karaba. Seveda se pojavljajo tudi druge teme, od zelo afriških, kot je pomen družine in skupine ali določena uglašenost s telesom, do splošnih, kot so vojne med spoloma (čarovnica je lepa ženska, ki se bojuje z moškimi), altruizem, bistroumnost, odpuščanje, odtekanje časa in ljubezen - med moškim in žensko, seveda - pa tudi med mamo in sinom, čustvo, ki ga tradicionalna folklora ni obdelovala.

Način, kako grafično upodobiti Afriko, je pomenil težavo: Afrika s svojo tradicijo dekorativnih umetnosti ni preveč blizu figurativni grafični umetnosti. Zaradi navdiha sem si Douanierja Rousseauja predstavljal kot Afričana. Ta ideja nam je bila v pomoč pri dekorativnem oblikovanju scenskega ozadja. Pri likih smo se naslanjali na egipčansko umetnost, saj sem se želel izogniti karikaturi in čedne posameznike predstaviti tako, da bi takoj pritegnili pozornost. Fetiši so nastali pod opaznim navdihom "črnske umetnosti", zato sem imel veliko izbire. Za barve sem uporabil žive spomine iz otroštva (svetlo rjava vasica, rumena savana, smaragdni gozd, zelena reka in čarovničina koča z zunanjostjo, sivo in črno kot smrt, in notranjostjo, rdečo kot pekel, ter mavrično obarvana zaključek v gneči sredi petične zabave.

Skoraj privzeto je glasbo za film napisal Afričan, saj gre za afriško zgodbo, Afrika pa je imela s svojo glasbo v svetu velik vpliv - Youssou N'dour, ki kljub mednarodni slavi še zmeraj živi v Dakarju. Poleg tega sem ga prosil, naj bo še bolj afriški kot navadno in uporablja samo tradicionalne afriške instrumente. Izvirne francoske glasove smo posneli v njegovem studiu z afriškimi igralci. Želel sem posneti film v svojem jeziku, ki je tudi jezik delčka Afrike, in nisem želel, da imajo moji vaščani glas, pripravljen in posnet sredi Pariza. Navdušen sem bil ob snemanju francosko govorečih glasov v Afriki, ker filmu dodajajo avtentičen afriški prizvok."

Biografija Michela Ocelota

"Močna točka stila Ocelotove režije je predvsem izjemna vizualna elegantnost njegovih produkcij. Režiser pogosto prisega na 'zastarele' tehnike kot je cut-out animacija.Podprt z režijo ranljivih čustev in s scenariji, ki predelujejo vesolje etničnih ali literarnih tradicionalnih zgodb, vse to poskuša izraziti na sodoben in pogosto nekonformističen način (uporno nasprotovanje ob njegovi odločitvi, da afriške ženske v filmu portretira z golim oprsjem, kar je bilo kulturno sprejemljivo, ostaja v spominu)."
Iz kataloga mednarodnega festivala animacije v Chiavari 2004

Po študiju v Franciji (na akademijah lepih umetnosti v Angersu in dekorativnih umetnosti v Parizu) in v ZDA (kalifornijski inštitut za umetnosti) je Michel Ocelot svoje profesionalno življenje predal animiranim filmom. Posnel je okoli trideset kratkih filmov in nanizank , predvajanih na televiziji in v kinu. Prejel je veliko nagrad na vodilnih mednarodnih festivalih, med njimi cezarja v Parizu, nagrado BAFTA v Londonu, glavno nagrado na festivalih v Zagrebu, Odensi, Annecyju, Kievu, Ottawi ...

Michel Ocelot je bil prvič izvoljen za predsednika ASIFA (Mednarodna zveza za animirani film) v letu 1994 in ponovno izvoljen leta 1997.

english

Once upon a time, in a small village, somewhere in Africa ... A voice coming from the belly of a pregnant woman, says "Mother deliver me". And out comes a little boy, he cuts his umbilical cord and announces: "I am KIRIKOU". He soon discovers that his village is cursed by KARABA, a terrifying sorceress surrounded by obedient and ferocious fetishes ... Karaba has cast a terrible spell: the spring is dried up, the villagers are being ransomed, the men of the village have been eaten up by the Sorceress. Will KIRIKOU succeed in delivering his village of the terrible curse?

Who is Kirikou and where he comes from?

Kirikou is a tiny little boy who knows exactly what he wants even before his birth. He is independent, selfless and brave. Kirikou's Mother is a young woman, proud and largely ignored by the rest of the village, as is her son. Like him, she is independent and open-minded. She accepts fully the premature independence of her son. Nevertheless she is a mother and despite her discretion, she will always be there when Kirikou needs her. Kirikou is determined to fight Karaba, the dreaded sorceress. Michel Ocelot says he imagined Kirikou so tiny so that the confrontation with Karaba would be the more striking: he is tiny and naked whereas she is very tall, elegant and impressive with all the jewelry she wears. His diminished size also enables him to enter places where others cannot go. Naturally, Kirikou is not content with being so small and so different from all the other children; he would love to be fully grown. Kirikou wants to save his people, but at the same time he is determined to discover why Karaba is so wicked. He is a little boy who doesn't agree with what the villagers seek to make him think and do; he wants to look further and find his own answers to his own questions.

Karaba is powerful, wicked and very beautiful. She could never be ugly. The Wise Man of the Mountain, Kirikou's gentle, forgiving, noble and handsome grandfather, who represents serene old age says of her: " Karaba doesn't like children, despises women, hates men and wishes upon them as much suffering as possible". There is a reason, however, for Karaba malice and Kirikou wants to find out what it is. In the end, we discover that she has suffered at the hands of men and is reeking her revenge against them. She lives alone, surrounded by fetishes, in kind of giant straw hut on the edge of the village, gray on the outside (death and destruction), and red on the inside (hellfire). The Fetishes are fearless slaves of various shapes and sizes who serve Karaba. They live with her and obey her orders without question. Inspiration for these characters came entirely from African sculptures.

In Kirikou Ocelot used animals found in Africa: hoopoes, zorils, ground squirrels, wart hogs, snakes … These aren't at all humanized, they are and remain animals, who are more inspiring than artificial talking animals. The director did not want to use the plants used a thousand times already in animated films. So he imposed the following rule: drawings of plants has to be exact reproductions of real tropical plants, though they are stylized and based on Egyptian drawings as well as those of the Douanier Rousseau. He wanted each plant in the film, even those hidden in the forest, to be a small masterpiece. You will see that the artists abided by these rules rather well.

Directors notes

The idea of the film is based on a Western African tale that I read a few years ago. The beginning of the tale and the story line aroused something in me and I immediately took notes, with a feuture film in mind. At the very beginning of the tale, a small child is talking whilst still inside his mother's womb demanding his birth. The mother replied with similar audacity and the child gives birth to himself. Then, unlike the other villagers, he confronts the sorceress instead of accepting and fearing the authority of this supernatural force. He eventually frees the villagers from the clutches of this wicked woman.

When a producer asked me for a script for a feature film, the idea of Kirikou-fears-no-sorceress imposed itself. On top of this wonderfully energetic story, I had long wanted to portray Africa, a powerful realm that had never been portrayed in an animated feature film, (The Lion King used African settings but not Africa nor the Africans). The story of the film is loosely based on the African tale which I used as a starting point in order to develop a nice, simple story with the questions I asked as a child and the convictions I have assumed as an adult. I developed the contrast between small child/mighty sorceress : Kirikou is tiny and wears no clothes, Karaba the Sorceress is statuesque, over-dressed with jewels, malice and power. The main topic of the story is the question that Kirikou raises throughout the tale : "Why is the sorceress wicked?". Adults have ready-made answers, when they do have them. But Kirikou will reach the truth, his actions are not pre-determined, he does not simply kill Karaba as in the original story. The second topic is that one should never fear "sorcerers" and that you will achieve what you want, not by believing in superstition and lucky charms, but by taking matters into your own hands. My heroes are independent: Kirikou, his mother, his grandfather and Karaba. Other themes came naturally too, from very African topics such as the importance of the family and of the group, a certain harmony with the body, to universal topics such as war of the sexes (the sorceress is a beautiful woman and she fights her battles with men), altruism, shrewdness, forgiveness, time ticking over, love -that between a man and a woman, of course- but also that between mother and son, an emotion not dealt with in traditional folklore.

How to treat Africa graphically presented a problem: Africa has a great tradition of decorative art but not so much that of a figurative graphic art. For inspiration purposes, I imagined an African Douanier Rousseau. That idea helped us design the decor of the background scenery. As for the characters, we made use of Egyptian art as I wanted to avoid caricature and I also wanted the handsome individuals to immediately appear striking. The fetishes are obviously inspired from "Negro Art". In this case, there was no lack of choice. As far as colour was concerned I used the vivid memories of my childhood; an ochre village, the yellow savannah, the emerald forest, the green river, the hut of the sorceress, the outside as grey and black as death and the inside as red as hell, and the rainbow-coloured finale of a crowd at a fancy-dress party.

Quite naturally an African musician composed the music. It is an African tale and Africa has made a huge impression on the world with its music. We asked Youssou N'dour to compose the soundtrack. He still lives in Dakar despite international fame. Furthermore, I asked him to be even more African than usual and to use exclusively traditional instruments. We also recorded the original French voices in his studio using African actors. I wanted to make a film in my language, which is also the language of a part of Africa and I did not want my villagers in the bush to have voices arranged and recorded in Paris. I enjoyed immensely recording French speakers in Africa, thus bringing an authentic African flavour to the film.

Michel Ocelot's biography

"The strong point of Ocelot's style is precisely the extreme visual elegance of his productions. Often the director calls upon "old fashioned" techniques such as cut-out animation. Though supported by painstaking directing and screenplays that recall the universe of ethnic or literary classic fable, they express this in a contemporary and often anti-conformist key (the raging controversy over his decision to portray African women in Kirikou with bare breasts, as was culturally correct, remains memorable)."
From the Chiavari International Animation Festival 2004 catalogue

After studying art in France (the Beaux Arts in Angers, the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs in Paris) and in the USA (California Institute of the Arts), Michel Ocelot devoted his professional life to animated films. He has made about thirty shorts and series, both for television and cinema. He has won numerous prizes at leading international festivals, amongst others, a CESAR in Paris, a BAFTA in London, first prizes at festivals in Zagreb, Odense, Annecy, Kiev, Ottawa...
Michel Ocelot was first elected president of the ASIFA (International Animated Film Association) in 1994 and re-elected in 1997.

Filmografija/Filmography

Ocelot trenutno pripravlja dva nova celovečerca. Otrok Kiriku (L'Enfant Kirikou) podoživlja dogodivščine njegovega glavnega junaka, Azur in Asmar (Azure et Asmar) pa je zgodba bratov tekmecev, postavljena v 15.stoletje, nekje med Andaluzijo in Severno Afriko.

Ocelot is presently working on two new feature films: L'Enfant Kirikou recounting the adventures of his hero-symbol and Azure et Asmar, the story of two rival brothers which is set in the 15. century, between Andalusia and North Africa.

Fotografije/Photos